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Upon finding out that I practice Buddhism, people tend to ask questions. It's always a bit uncomfortable for me because, at least where I live, there is a good chance that everything they know about Buddhism is going to come from me. So, I spend a bit of thought trying to choose my words, examples and explanations carefully. One of the ways that I do this is to use Western examples to explain Buddhist principles in order to try and help bridge the gap between what they know and what they do not.
For instance, I've found that the 'Ship of Theseus' is a good way to explain the illusion of self to a Western person. I like pairing the butterfly effect and dependent origination as well. I think too that it relieves some of the pressure I feel to 'get it perfect' because they are going to bring their own beliefs about butterflies and ships and as a result, muddy the waters by themselves.
Anyway, do you have any other Western/Eastern comparisons that you would be willing to share?