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The four teachings of doctrine are: (1) The Tripitaka teaching, which corresponds to Hinayana, is so called because it consists of the three divisions of the canon ( tripitaka)—sutras (the Buddha’s teachings), vinaya (the rules of monastic discipline), and abhidharma (commentaries and treatises). The teachings of this category reveal the cause of transmigration in the threefold world and urge one to free oneself from this continual rebirth and enter the state of nirvana in which all desires are extinguished. To help one cast off attachment to the threefold world, they teach the analytical view of non-substantiality, or the perception that all things, when analyzed into their constituent elements (dharmas), prove to be without substance